top of page
Subscribe for Free Business and Finance Resources
  • Writer's picturePeak Frameworks Team

What is Six Sigma? A Strategy to Improve Business Processes

If you're interested in breaking into finance, check out our Private Equity Course and Investment Banking Course, which help thousands of candidates land top jobs every year.

Six Sigma Explained

Six Sigma is a set of tools and principles that are designed to improve business processes. Originally designed for manufacturing, Six Sigma has become a ubiquitous concept in many areas of business.

Six Sigma
Source: IPQ

Introduced by Motorola in the 1980s, Six Sigma began its journey as a set of practices designed to improve manufacturing processes by identifying and removing the causes of defects. Bill Smith, an engineer at Motorola, can be credited with its inception. Over the years, it's spread from manufacturing to service industries. Financial firms, from Wall Street giants to boutique investment banks in Europe, have recognized its value.

Core Principles of Six Sigma

The driving force behind Six Sigma is the DMAIC methodology:

  • Define the problem or process improvement objective.

  • Measure the current process and its output.

  • Analyze the data to identify the root cause of defects.

  • Improve by implementing solutions to fix the issues.

  • Control to ensure that improvements are sustained.

A vivid example of DMAIC in action is Bank of America's Six Sigma initiative. By applying the methodology, they significantly reduced process variations, leading to increased customer satisfaction.

Six Sigma in Finance

Six Sigma in Finance
Source: WilliamsMarston

So, how does Six Sigma weave its magic in the realm of finance?

  • Streamlining Financial Processes: Processes like risk assessment or credit approvals can be streamlined, reducing wait times and improving service quality.

  • Data-driven Decisions: Firms like JPMorgan and Goldman Sachs, which pride themselves on their data-driven strategies, have successfully integrated Six Sigma principles to sharpen their decision-making.

Benefits of Implementing Six Sigma in the Finance Sector

  • Improved Efficiency and Reduced Errors: For instance, GE Capital's Six Sigma initiative led to a sharp reduction in payment processing errors, directly contributing to improved bottom-line results.

  • Cost Savings and Increased Profitability: American Express, by leveraging Six Sigma, was able to save billions of dollars and ensure streamlined operations.

  • Enhanced Customer Satisfaction: Clients receive quicker responses and better service, a competitive edge in the ever-competitive finance world.

Tools & Techniques Relevant for Finance Professionals

The financial world, with its intricate and intertwined processes, requires precision, efficiency, and continuous improvement. Six Sigma provides the tools to achieve this. While the Six Sigma toolkit is comprehensive, certain tools stand out for their particular relevance to finance:

Process Mapping and Flowcharts

Process mapping and flowcharts offer visual representations of financial processes. They can:

  • Illustrate Complex Transactions: Simplify understanding by breaking down multifaceted financial transactions, such as M&A deals or trade settlements.

  • Pinpoint Inefficiencies: By mapping out processes, inefficiencies or bottlenecks become apparent. For instance, during an audit process, flowcharts can help identify areas where delays often occur.

Root Cause Analysis

Diving deep to identify the root causes of issues is vital. In finance:

  • Understand Underperformance: If a particular asset class or investment vehicle consistently underperforms, root cause analysis can help determine why. Is it market-driven? A flaw in the selection process? Or perhaps external factors?

  • Refine Strategies: By understanding the 'why' behind failures, financial strategies can be refined. For instance, if a trading strategy has been resulting in losses, understanding the underlying reasons can help in tweaking the strategy for better future performance.

Statistical Process Control (SPC)

This tool involves the use of statistical methods to monitor and control processes. In finance:

  • Monitor Loan Processing: As evidenced by HSBC's application, SPC can ensure timely loan approvals and processing, enhancing customer satisfaction.

  • Track Investment Performance: Track the performance of investment portfolios, identify trends, and make data-driven decisions to rebalance portfolios.

Failure Mode and Effects Analysis (FMEA)

Used to evaluate potential failure modes of a process and their impacts:

  • Evaluate Financial Products: Before the launch of a new financial product, FMEA can be used to understand potential pitfalls, ensuring a successful launch and customer satisfaction.

  • Risk Assessment: In investment banking, before sealing deals, understanding potential failures and their impacts can save millions.

Voice of the Customer (VOC)

This tool helps in capturing customer needs and preferences:

  • Customize Financial Products: Financial institutions can tailor products, such as credit cards or loan schemes, based on the insights derived from VOC.

  • Improve Client Relations: Investment banks can better cater to client needs, ensuring long-term relationships and successful deal closures.

Challenges and Considerations in Six Sigma Implementation

Embracing Six Sigma is not without challenges:

  • Resistance to Change: Traditional institutions, especially in Europe, might resist the data-driven approach of Six Sigma.

  • Top-down Leadership Support: For Six Sigma to work, there needs to be support from the highest echelons of management.

  • Training and Culture: A successful Six Sigma transformation requires comprehensive training and a shift in organizational culture.

However, with the right guidance and resources, these challenges can be overcome, leading to enhanced profitability and efficiency.

Steps to Get Started

six sigma levels
Source: Six Sigma Global Institute

  1. Assemble a Team of Stakeholders: Include diverse perspectives to capture the nuances of the financial process.

  2. Training and Certification: Consider renowned entities like the American Society for Quality (ASQ) for certification options.

  3. Set Clear Objectives: What do you hope to achieve with Six Sigma? Clear goals pave the way for tangible results.


In the fast-paced world of finance, the ability to adapt and innovate is paramount. Six Sigma, with its rich history and proven results, offers a pathway to excellence for finance professionals worldwide.


bottom of page