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  • Writer's picturePeak Frameworks Team

What is Natural Law? (Principles, Definition, Applications in Business)

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Natural Law Explained

Natural Law refers to a set of principles considered inherent in human nature and discernible through reason. Early thinkers like Plato and Aristotle developed this philosophy, which Thomas Aquinas later adopted in the Middle Ages. Their beliefs revolved around the idea that there is an order to the universe and that humanity's moral actions are part of this natural order.

Natural Law
Source: WallStreetMojo

Rooted in philosophy, its significance in guiding ethical and rational financial decisions is undeniable.

For example, the 2008 financial crisis can be examined through the lens of Natural Law. Many argue that the unethical decisions made by banks, such as offering subprime mortgages without due diligence, were a violation of these natural principles, leading to widespread financial turmoil.

Principles of Natural Law in Finance

In the world of finance, three primary principles derived from Natural Law play a crucial role:

  • Universality: Just as laws like gravity apply everywhere, certain principles in finance, such as risk and reward, are universally recognized.

  • Rationality: Making decisions based on reason and not emotion. For instance, during the European Debt Crisis, policymakers needed to approach solutions rationally, analyzing data and projections rather than succumbing to panic.

  • Morality: Ensuring that financial decisions align with ethical standards. The Volkswagen emissions scandal, where the company deceived regulators about the environmental impact of their cars, is a glaring example of a breach of this principle.

Natural Law vs. Positive Law in Financial Regulation

Natural Law vs. Positive Law
Source: Chegg

While Natural Law represents inherent, unchanging principles, Positive Law pertains to rules set by humans, often in the form of regulations or legislation.

The Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act passed in the aftermath of the 2008 financial crisis, is a prime example of Positive Law. It was developed to prevent such crises in the future by implementing stricter regulations. Though crafted based on current needs, its roots can be traced back to Natural Law principles, ensuring ethics and rationality in financial dealings.

Importance of Natural Law for Finance Professionals

Following our exploration of Natural Law's foundations and its role in the broader financial landscape, Let's dive deeper into its importance for finance professionals.

Developing Ethical Intuition

At the heart of Natural Law is the belief that certain moral truths are universal and discernible through reason. For finance professionals, this translates to developing an ethical intuition.

Consider the decisions leading up to the Enron scandal, where financial statements were manipulated, betraying shareholders' trust. Had the leaders tapped into the ethical principles rooted in Natural Law, such catastrophic ethical breaches might have been averted.

Risk Management

Natural Law emphasizes understanding and respecting universal truths. In the finance realm, this means being aware of potential risks and not taking reckless chances.

The Lehman Brothers collapse, precipitated by excessive risk-taking in the mortgage market, serves as a stark reminder. Recognizing inherent market risks and acting in line with the principles of Natural Law might have changed the course of this financial giant.

Building Trust and Reputation

In an industry where reputation is paramount, aligning with the principles of Natural Law can ensure long-term trust.

Goldman Sachs's reputation was tarnished after the SEC lawsuit in 2010 related to the marketing of a subprime mortgage product. Following Natural Law's principles would mean prioritizing transparency and client welfare over short-term profits.

Navigating Gray Areas

The financial world is not always black and white. There are gray areas where regulations might not provide clear guidance. Natural Law serves as a beacon, offering clarity during such ambiguous times.

For instance; the debates over high-frequency trading (HFT) lack clear regulatory guidelines. However, finance professionals can resort to Natural Law to evaluate the ethical implications of their actions in such areas.

Driving Innovation with Responsibility

While innovation is crucial in finance, it must be pursued responsibly. Natural Law encourages advancements but not at the expense of ethics and morality.

To illustrate, the rise of cryptocurrencies like Bitcoin presented financial professionals with both opportunities and ethical dilemmas. By adhering to Natural Law principles, professionals can innovate while considering the broader societal implications.

Challenges and Critiques

While many argue for the enduring relevance of Natural Law, there are criticisms, especially in a dynamic global financial landscape. Modern critics contend that Natural Law might be too rigid to cater to the nuanced challenges presented by evolving financial markets.

Yet, as seen in historical financial events, the consequences of ignoring these principles can be catastrophic. This emphasizes the need for a delicate balance between timeless principles and modern-day flexibility.


Natural Law, despite originating from ancient philosophy, holds unparalleled relevance in today's financial world. Its principles of universality, rationality, and morality serve as guiding lights for professionals navigating the intricate paths of investment, banking, and corporate finance.


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