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  • Writer's picturePeak Frameworks Team

What is the Central Tendency in Statistics? (Mean, Mode, Median and Examples)

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What is the Central Tendency?

In statistics, the central tendency is a value that aims to describe an entire dataset. The central tendency gives a snapshot of where most values in a dataset tend to cluster.

The central tendency is often measured as a mean, median, or mode.

The Three Main Measures of Central Tendency

Central Tendency
Source: GeeksforGeekrs

Mean (Arithmetic Average)

The mean is the sum of all values divided by the number of values. It's one of the most commonly used measures in finance.

  • How it's used in finance: For instance, when evaluating the average return on an investment over a certain period, analysts typically use the mean. If you had five yearly returns of 5%, 6%, 4%, 8%, and 7%, the mean would be 6% [(5+6+4+8+7)/5].

  • Strengths and weaknesses: While the mean provides a quick snapshot of an average, it can be skewed by outliers. For instance, in the case of CEO salaries within a company, if one CEO earns significantly more than the others, the mean could provide an inflated average, making it seem like everyone earns more than they actually do.

Median (Middle Value)

The median is the middle value in a list of numbers. When the numbers in the list are odd, the median is the middle number; when even, it's the average of the two middle numbers.

  • Relevance in financial data: It's particularly useful in real estate. For instance, when looking at the price of homes in San Francisco in the past decade, the median value offers a clearer picture than the mean. Given the presence of super-luxury homes, the mean can get skewed, but the median provides a more accurate representation of what most houses are priced at.

  • When to use it over mean: Median is the go-to when you have skewed data or outliers.

Mode (Most Frequently Occurring Value)

The mode represents the value that appears most frequently in a dataset.

  • Its applications in finance: For instance, in analyzing the most frequent quarterly profit margin achieved by Apple over the past 10 years, the mode would provide insight into the most consistent profit margin.

  • Cases where it’s the most useful measure: In instances where recurrence is of importance, the mode serves as a reliable measure.

Why Central Tendency Matters in Finance

Why Central Tendancy is Important
Source: Wallstreet Mojo

Price Estimations in Stock Markets

Traders and analysts often use these measures to determine the potential future price of a stock. By looking at the mean or median of historical stock prices, for example, one can get a sense of where the stock might be headed.

Forecasting Financial Data

In predicting revenue or sales growth, the mean growth rate over past quarters can serve as a foundational prediction metric.

Analyzing Central Trends in Diverse Data Sets

Understanding the central tendency can offer insights into the broader movements of markets, sectors, or individual assets.

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Differences Between Mean, Median, and Mode

Difference of Mean Median and Mode
Source: BYJU'S

  • How outliers impact each measure: While outliers can drastically change the mean, the median remains unaffected. For example, if Amazon's stock had an unusually high surge one day due to significant news, that day's price might skew the mean price over a month but won't influence the median much.

  • Skewed data and the role of central tendency: In a scenario where most of Europe's tech startups see modest profits but a few, like Spotify, have immense profits, the mean profit would be skewed higher. However, the median would provide a more realistic average profit for a typical startup.

Real-life Applications in Finance

The abstract world of statistics finds concrete grounding in finance, where data-driven decision-making is pivotal. The measures of central tendency—mean, median, and mode—play a significant role in various financial analyses.

Case Studies Showcasing the Use of Mean, Median, and Mode

Portfolio Performance Analysis:

  • Mean: An investor wants to understand the average return of their investment portfolio over the past ten years. By calculating the mean return of the portfolio annually, they can get a quick insight into the general performance trend.

  • Median: In a different scenario, let's consider a hedge fund examining the annual salaries of CEOs in the tech industry. Due to outliers like Elon Musk's compensation, the median would provide a more representative view of a typical tech CEO's salary than the mean.

  • Mode: A retail bank might be interested in the most common credit score among its loan applicants to design suitable loan products. Here, the mode helps in identifying that frequent score.

Historical Data Analysis for Stocks and its Implications

Evaluating Stock Price Movements:

  • Mean: Take the tech giant, Apple. By studying the mean closing price of Apple's stock over the past decade, analysts can deduce a general trend in its stock performance. If the mean price has been steadily increasing, it's a good indicator of the stock's overall positive momentum.

  • Median: On days when the stock market is particularly volatile, looking at the median stock price over a month can provide a more stable view of a stock's value, free from the influence of extreme highs or lows.

  • Mode: For a day trader, understanding the mode of a stock's intraday price might be beneficial. If a stock often hits a certain price point multiple times within a day, a trader could strategize their buying and selling around that price.

Evaluating a Company's Financial Health Using Central Tendency

Income Statement Analysis:

  • Mean: By studying the mean quarterly revenue of Amazon over the past five years, stakeholders can gauge its consistent growth. A rising mean indicates steady growth, which is a positive sign for potential investors.

  • Median: When assessing the net income of startups, where a few outlier quarters (due to initial investments or sudden growth spurts) might distort the bigger picture, the median net income over a period provides a more stable view.

  • Mode: Suppose a company has sporadic sales, with some products selling far more than others. The mode can help identify which product price or range is the most frequent, offering insights into the company's main revenue source.

Balance Sheet Health:

  • Mean: The mean value of a company's assets over several quarters can show whether the company is accumulating assets or depleting them, influencing investment decisions.

  • Median: For a company with fluctuating liabilities (like a seasonal business), the median liability over a year can provide a clearer picture of its typical debt situation.

  • Mode: If a company has taken various short-term loans at different interest rates, the mode can reveal the most common interest rate they're dealing with.

Limitations of Central Tendency Measures

  • Misleading results due to outliers: As mentioned earlier, outliers can skew the mean.

  • How averages might not represent the entire dataset: For instance, the mean income in New York City might seem high, but it doesn't account for the disparity between the wealthiest and the poorest.

  • Importance of complementing these measures with other statistical tools: While central tendency provides a snapshot, dispersion measures like variance and standard deviation offer deeper insights into the spread of data.


Central tendency measures, including mean, median, and mode, are powerful tools in financial analysis. They provide quick insights into datasets, aiding professionals in making informed decisions. While these measures have limitations, understanding them is crucial for anyone in the finance industry.


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